Scaling Noun Vibhaktis through Chants

Registering Vibhakti patterns through common chants..

Sujatha R
6 min readNov 14, 2021

A beginner student’s dilemma. How to register the myriad Vibhakti forms? I can barely remember a phone number. Wish I had learnt this as a kid.

Thankfully, there are rich verses from Vedas, Gita and other works with a single vibhakti shining through it. The Sanskrit student in me is delighted making a collection of these.

Creation unfolded itself with birds and animals, plants and trees, mountains and rivers, men and emotions, and you and me. And all of these landed as ‘nouns’.

They were dual pairs of ‘day and night’, ‘male and female’, ‘happy and sad’, ‘winter and summer..’ and the concept of ‘dual nouns’

And threefold it walked.. ‘singular, dual and plural’. And ‘eight ways’ the nouns expressed..

He the doer,

He the object and the purpose,

With him, the tool and the means,

To him, destination of offering,

From him, separated and plurality of differences

Everyone a relation of him,

Residence in him, and

Awe of him..

The plurality of these noun expressions is seen in its opulent ‘vibhakti’.

CASE 1: The doer

Vishnu Sahasranamam, Lalitha Sahasranamas is a collection of names in the prathma Vibhakthis.

The last verse of Gita.. All in prathama vibhakti.. Gita 18.78

यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णः
यत्र धनुर्धरः पार्थः
तत्र
श्रीः, विजयः, भूतिः, ध्रुवा नीतिः मम मतिः

yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
yatra pārthaḥ dhanurdharaḥ
tatra śrīḥ, vijayaḥ, bhūtiḥ, dhruvā nītiaḥ
matiḥ mama

Where there is Krishna, the Master of Yoga… Where there is Partha, the archer… there stands glory, victory and prosperity, and there also is the immutable Law in my opinion.

Case 2: What Whom?

I pray to whom?

Acyutam Keshavam Raama-Naaraayannam
Krssnna-Daamodaram Vaasudevam Harim
Shrii-Dharam Maadhavam Gopikaa-Vallabham
Jaanakii-Naayakam Raamacamdram
“Bhaje”

Vasudeva-Sutam Devam
Kansa-Chanura-Mardanam
Devaki-Paramanandam
Krishnam “
Vande” Jagadgurum

Case 3. Instrument.. “with”.. karana..

“na/Na/aa”

The words of Gita.. With abyaasa and vairagyam, anything can be mastered Oh Kaunteya…

abhyasena tu kaunteya vairagyena ca grhyate

~

From Chanakya Niti..

With the gem, the bangle glitters.. with the bangle the gem dazzles.. with gem and bangle, the hand glitters..

With the poet, the king dazzles.. with the king, the poet dazzles.. with both of them the court dazzles

Manina valayam valayena manih manina valayena vibhati karah ।
Kavi
na cha vibhuh vibhuna cha kavih kavina vibhuna cha vibhati sabha ॥

~

With my mind, words and action I shall be aligned..

Manasaa vachaa karmaNa

~

Plural Forms

“bhi”

Vedic Shanti Mantra

With our ears may we hear auspicious..
With our eyes may we see auspicious..
With steady limbs and body..

Om Bhadram Karnnebhih Shrnnuyaama Devaah |
Bhadram Pashyema-Akssa
bhir-Yajatraah |
Sthirair-Ang
gais-Tussttuvaamsas-Tanuubhih |
Vyashema Deva-Hitam Yad-Aayuh

Vaak Suktam

Aham Rudrebhir vasubhir charami,
Aham aadhithyer uta vaisvadevaii,

I move with Rudras and Vasus,
I walk with the Sun and other Gods,

Case 4.Sampradaana: Offering ‘to’

ōṃ gura namaḥ
Salutations to the teacher (1)

namō namaḥ śrī-gurupādukābhyām..
Salutation to the pair of Guru’s sandals (2)

Om Sri Gurubhyo Namah..
Salutation to all the Gurus (3)

From Lakshmi Astottaram

ōṁ prakr̥tyai namaḥ
ōṁ vikr̥tyai namaḥ
ōṁ lakṣmyai namaḥ

From Vishnu Astottaram

ōṃ rāmāya namaḥ
ōṃ kṛṣṇāya namaḥ
ōṃ svāmi namaḥ
ōṃ viṣṇanamaḥ
ōṃ jiṣṇa namaḥ

Pronouns

Ya Devi Sarva Bhuteshu
Salutations
to her
Namas-Tasyai Namas-Tasyai Namas-Tasyai Namo Namah

Guru Stotram
Salutations
to him
tasmai
shri gurave namah

Saraswaty Namastubyam
Bless
me
Siddir bhavathu me sada..

The vedic usage of nau/nah implying “both of us”, “us”..seen in vibhakthi 2/4/6

Om Sham No Mitrah.. Sham Varunnah
Sham No Indro Brhaspatih
May Mitra, Varuna and Indra bless us.

Om Saha Nau vAvatu (dual)
Saha Nau Bhunaktu
Together may we move.. Together may we relish

Gayatri Mantra
Dhiyo Yo Nah Pracodayaat
May that arise in our intellect

Case 5: Vibhakti of Separation and Cause & Effects

From X is Y. From Y is Z

krodhād bhavati sammohaḥ sammohāt smṛiti-vibhramaḥ
smṛiti-bhranśhād buddhi-nāśho buddhi-nāśhāt praṇaśhyati — gita 2.63

From Anger is clouding of judgment,
From clouding of judgment is bewilderment of the memory.
From that the intellect gets destroyed;
From that intellect is destroyed, one is ruined.

annād bhavanti bhūtāni parjanyād anna-sambhavaḥ
yajñād bhavati parjanyo yajñaḥ karma-samudbhavaḥ — gita 3.14

From food exists living beings.
From rains is the food.
From yagna is the rain.

5 Vibhakti for comparison. X better than Y.

śhreyo hi jñānam abhyāsāt jñānād dhyānaṁ viśhiṣhyate
dhyānāt karma-phala-tyāgas tyāgāch chhāntir anantaram 12.12

Gyaanam is better than abyaasam
Dyaanam better than gyaanam
Karma phala tyaga better than dyaanam

Case 6… Sambanda: Relation ‘of’

In the verses of Kanakadhara Stotram by Shankaracharya, every verse ends in this style. May I get blessings and kataksham sideglances ‘of the Goddess’.

मङ्गलदेवतायाः (glance) of the goddess

सागरसम्भवायाः (blessings) of the ocean-daughter

Indiraayaah (looks) of her blue-lotus-like-eyes

भुजङ्गशयाङ्गनायाः (consort) of vishnu

कमलालयायाः of the lotus-dwelling-one

भार्गवनन्दनायाः of brigu’s daughter

In the following verses, sambanda vibhakti is used to express ‘OF THIS GROUP, this is the BEST’.

From the Rig Vedic hymn

गणानां त्वा गणपतिं हवामहे
कविं कवीनामुपमश्रवस्तमम् ।
ज्येष्ठराजं ब्रह्मणां ब्रह्मणस्पत

Of the ganas, you are ganapati
Of the wise, you are the wisest
Of the brahmans, you are the foremost

From Vibhuti Yoga

ādityānām ahaṁ viṣhṇur jyotiṣhāṁ ravir anśhumān
marīchir marutām asmi nakṣhatrāṇām ahaṁ śhaśhī

Amongst the twelve sons of Aditi I am Vishnu; amongst luminous objects I am the sun. Know me to be Marichi amongst the Maruts, and the moon amongst the stars in the night sky.

rudrāṇāṁ śhaṅkaraśh chāsmi vitteśho yakṣha-rakṣhasām
vasūnāṁ pāvakaśh chāsmi meruḥ śhikhariṇām aham

Amongst the Rudras know me to be Shankar; amongst the demons I am Kuber. I am Agni amongst the Vasus and Meru amongst the mountains.

Case 7: Adhikarana Location

Gives a sense of In xxx, In yyy, In zzz

The chapter end verses from Gita comprising a mix of singular and plural saptami vibhakti

Shrimad-Bhagavad-Gitasu
Upanishadsu
Brahmavidyayam
Yogashastre
Shri Krishna-Arjuna-samvade

In the Gitas, In the Upanishads, In the Brahma Vidhya & Yoga Shastras, In the conversation between Krishna & Arjuna

DUAL NOUNS

Dual Pairs of Raaga Dwesha. Beware of forces of attraction and repulsion.. For they can be hurdles in your life.

indriyasyendriyasyārthe rāga-dveṣhau vyavasthitau
tayor na vaśham āgachchhet tau hyasya paripanthinau

A concluding mix of 6 and 7

Of ABC in xyz kind of poetic pattern.. This is Valmiki’s parsing to ponder for sure..

प्रजासुखत्त्वे चन्द्रस्य वसुधायाः क्षमागुणैः।
बुद्ध्या बृहस्पतेस्तुल्यो वीर्ये साक्षाच्छचीपतेः।।2.2.30।।

प्रजासुखत्त्वे in causing happiness to the people, चन्द्रस्य of the Moon, क्षमागुणै: in the virtue of forbearance, वसुधाया: of the earth, बुद्ध्या by wisdom, बृहस्पते: of Brihaspati, वीर्ये in prowess, शचीपते: of Indra, साक्षात् directly, तुल्य: equal.

He is equal to the Moon in causing happiness to the people, to the earth in forbearance, to Brihaspati in wisdom and to Indra in prowess.

MUSICAL Chants to conquer Vibhaktis.

Came across these beautiful Vibhakti table songs. An easy way to memorise..

https://youtu.be/dxI_p4dpygI
https://youtu.be/Ed2ec0k91yg

And beautiful songs on Rama and Guru..

रामो राजमणिः सदा विजयते रामं रमेशं भजे
रामेणाभिहता निशाचरचमूः रामाय तस्मै नमः ।
रामान्नास्ति परायणंपरतरं रामस्य दासोस्म्यहं
रामे चित्तलयस्सदा भवतु मे भो राम मामुद्धर ॥

Meaning:

1: I contemplate on Sri Rama, Who is the Jewel among the Kings, Who Always Emerges Victorious, and Who is the Lord of Sita Devi.

2: I Salute Sri Rama who Destroyed the mighty Armies of the Demons.

3: There is no greater Refuge than Sri Rama. I am a humble Servant of Sri Rama.

4: Let my mind ever Meditate on Rama. O Sri Rama. Kindly grant me Salvation.

गुरुरेव गतिः गुरुमेव भजे
गुरुणैव सहास्मि नमो गुरवे |
न गुरोः परमं शिशुरस्मि गुरोः
मतिरस्ति गुरौ मम पाहि गुरो ||

[Guru is my only refuge, I worship only the Guru

I am always with the Guru, Salutations to the Guru.

There is nobody higher than the Guru, I am a child of the Guru

My intellect is fixed on Guru, O Guru, protect me.]

Note: The verse uses all the eka-vachana roopas of all eight vibhaktis of the “गुरु” shabda! — गुरुः, गुरुम्, गुरुणा, गुरवे, गुरोः, गुरोः, गुरौ, (हे) गुरो

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCSMImu3LDA

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Sujatha R

I write.. I weave.. I walk.. कवयामि.. वयामि.. यामि.. Musings on Music, Linguistics & Patterns