Illustrations of LoT lakaar

Diction and Patterns

Sujatha R
4 min readNov 15, 2023

A few interesting cases of लोट्. मपु. एक from popular works. In a conversation between two people, this form supports a tone of advise, instruction, or blessing.. and hence widely used. गच्छ.. धाव.. Go.. Run..

When verses can melt and reveal grammar topics..

A quick scan of the diction. Thanks to Srimati Uma Jayaram for sharing some of the words.

a) In majority of the roots, it resembles the root itself.

गच्छ, आगच्छ, कुरु, स्वीकुरू, परिष्कुरु [correct], नम, गृहाण, क्षिप, क्रीड, धाव, पृच्छ,अट [roam]
गल
[swallow], जिघ्र [smell], शृणु [listen], स्पृश [touch]

b) A small set have the “हि” endings

जहि [win], याहि [go away], देहि [give], पाहि[save]

c) Other unusual endings
विद्धि [know], लीढि [lick]

d) Atmane Pada forms “स्व” endings

युध्यस्व (fight), क्षमस्व (forgive), वर्धस्व (grow), वर्तस्व (roam)

e) Certain family of roots like चुरादि गणः need the “य” ending

आनय [get], स्थापय [place], प्रज्वालय [light], पिधाय [open], स्वादय [taste], उद्घाटय [open], योजय [join], प्रक्षालय [clean]
गाय, नृत्य, पश्य, ताडय
[hit], तर्जय [scold], भायय, रचय [compose], सूचय [notify], ज्ञापय
धारय
[hold], पूजय, अर्पय [offer]
पोषय, चोदय
[instigate] , पालय

f) Case with णिच् prayoga and “य” ending.. Here, the karta indirectly makes somebody else do the action.

चिन्तय [do think], भावय [do reflect], दर्शय [show], विनोदय [enjoy]

Let us keep the diction aside, and dive into common usages in popular works.

Shanti mantras

Case with simple endings

सत्यं वद। घर्मं चर
मातृदेवो
भव। पितृदेवो भव। आचार्यदेवो भव। अतिथिदेवो भव

(You should) speak the truth.. (You should) tread in dharma
(You should)
be like-the-one-who-treats-mother-like-God..
be like-the-one-who-treats-father-like-God..
be like-the-one-who-treats-guests-like-God. (bahuvreehi samaasa)

A few other blessings following the style “may you be”

सुखीभव -May (you) be happy
चिरंजीवी
भव May (you) be longliving
आयुष्मान
भव May (you) be longliving
विजयी
भव May (you) be successful

Thinking about it, the English “be” quite resonates with भव
“Be Happy.. Be Cheerful.. Be the Captain of your Ship.. Be like a Busy Bird”

Case with णिच् prayoga and “य” ending

In this popular verse, notice गमय (गम् + णिच्) has the effect of “make it do”.. In this context, “May you make me walk” or “May you lead me”

ॐ असतो माद्गमय
तमसो मा ज्योति
र्गमय
मृत्योर्मा अमृतं
गमय

From falsehood, (May you) lead me in the path of truth.
From darkness, (May you)
lead me in the path of light.
From death, (May you)
lead me in the path of immortality.

From Bhaja Govindam..

Case with simple endings

भज’ गोविन्दं ‘भज’ गोविन्दं
‘Repeat’ the name of Lord
Govinda

मा ‘कुरु’ धनजनयौवनगर्
‘Do’ not pride over wealth-people-youth

ब्रह्मपदं त्वं ‘प्रविश
May you ‘enter’
brahmapadam

शत्रौ मित्रे पुत्रे बन्धौ
मा
‘कुरु’ यत्नं विग्रह+सन्धौ
सर्वस्मिन् अपि
‘पश्य’ आत्मानं
सर्वत्र
‘उत्सृज’ भेद अज्ञानम् ।

‘Do’ not bond or breakup with friend, foe or son. ‘See’ all as same. ‘Let go’ of differences.

Case with ‘हि’ endings

मूढ! ‘जहीहि’ धनागमतृष्णां
O Fool! Give up on your thirst for wealth

कृपयाऽपारे ‘पाहि’ मुरारे
‘Save me’ O Murari

Case with णिच् prayoga and “य” ending

karta indirectly does the action. Little tricky.. Seems like asking “you” to “allow the faculties to do the thinking/reflecting/enjoying”

अर्थं अनर्थं भावय नित्यं
Do realise that wealth leads to misery..

कः त्वं.. कः अहं कुत आयातः.. इति परिभावय [from the root “भू अवकल्कने” ]
Do reflect
on these questions..

का ते कान्ता.. कः ते पुत्रः .. तत्त्वं चिन्तय
‘Do ponder’ over these questions

एतत् मांसवसादिविकारम् (इति) मनसि.. वारं वारं (त्वं) विचिन्तय
May you reflect..

निजकर्मोपात्तं यत् वित्तं (त्वं) लभसे, तेन (त्वं) चित्तं विनोदय
Rejoice with what is obtained by honest means

From chapter 3 of bhagawad Gita

Case of Atmanepada dhatu

विगतज्वरः भूत्वा ‘युध्यस्व’
You ought to fight Arjuna!

Other Cases

एनं वैरिणं ‘विद्धि’
You ought to know, karma/krodha are your enemies!

शत्रुं ‘जहि’
‘Conquer’ shatru of kaama/krodha

A Muttuswami Dikshitar song

माये त्वं ‘याहि
Oh Maya! Go away!

त्वमेहि मुदं ‘देहि’.. मां ‘पाहि
Right here, you ‘give me’ bliss.. ‘protect’ me.

Argala Stotram

रूपं ‘देहि’.. जयं ‘देहि’.. यशो ‘देहि’..
द्विषो ‘
जहि
Grant me (inner) beauty!
Grant me (inner) victory!
Grant me (inner) glory!
Destroy my (inner) enemy!

Misc

उत्तिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ गोविन्द उत्तिष्ठ गरुडध्वज ।
उत्तिष्ठ कमलाकान्त त्रैलोक्यं मङ्गलं कुरु ॥२॥

क्षमस्व त्वं क्षमस्व त्वं शेषशैलशिखामणे ॥ ११॥
[Venkatesha Suprabhatam]

पिब रे.. राम रसम्..
gaccha gaccha.. [manIShApanchakam]

Some day-to-day conversations

गच्छ रे मूर्ख!
वेगेन मा
धाव!
उपरि मम या पेटिका अस्ति तां अत्र
स्थापय
तमः जातः। दीपं
प्रज्वालय
वृष्टिः भवति। वातायनं
पिधाय। [close the window]
लवणं योजितं किम्?
स्वादय! [taste]
गुल्लिकां
गल
हे देव मम दुःखम्
अपाकुरु
सायं काले
अट। [walk]
चिरं
जीव!
अम्ब कथां
कथय! [narrate]
आपणं
याहि।[go]
मा
रुदिहि। [cry]

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Sujatha R

I write.. I weave.. I walk.. कवयामि.. वयामि.. यामि.. Musings on Music, Linguistics & Patterns