Words of SundaraKand

High Frequency words and Patterns..

Sujatha R
19 min readJan 8, 2021

Spread over 68 chapters and about 3000 verses, the beauty of Sunderakandam needs to be digested from an ocean of words. In my first time reading with English translation and subsequent chanting, very few words seemed familiar. After 30 chapters of chanting, I was able to pick the vocabulary and language patterns slowly one after another.

Overview of Vocabulary

Classification and genre tagging does help in seeing familiarity and establishing connections. What did the repeating words talk about?

  • Several ways of addressing Hanuman, Sita, Ravana, Rama and others.
  • The ‘flora, fauna, colours, gem stones, city plan’ describe the beauty of Ashoka Vana, the grandeur of Lanka, Hanuman’s scenic journey back and forth to Lanka and the jewels of Ravana and his wives.
  • Verbs that describe Hanuman in his search operation.. the thoughts in his mind.. And the actions involved the fight with Ravana’s army.

Clues for Linguistic Parsing

And for the language parsing, this kind of algorithm can be used for event estimation as they keep repeating again and again.

  1. Every verse has a speaker and an addresee. Familiarity with the names list makes this decoding easier.
  2. However distant in space and time it be, Valmiki Maharshi floods the emotions in us by his sheer use of metaphors.. Sita felt violated like the water hitting the banks.. Like the banana leaves torn by the wind etc.. And there are 400 plus metaphors that can be easily parsed with the ‘iva, sama, yatha, tulya’ indicating its presence.
  3. There are quite a few repeating comparisons. Sita with Indra’s wife Rathi. Fury of Hanuman like Shiva’s victory. Lanka with Airavati.
  4. And another 5 percent where the yaksha gandharva sidda seem like celestial observers with a global scope. They appear here and there as 1 or 2 verses are either running away terrified, dancing with joy, overlooking, sighing etc.
  5. Valour of Rama and Hanuman.. Even if the Gods and Brahma Indra Raudra would stop us from our agenda.. no looking back and we woud wage a war. And these are mere Raakshasas.
  6. And when ever a warrior is described.. be it Ravana, Hanuman, Indrajit, Vibhishana.. His muscular looks, ornaments, anger in the eye, his shrewdness and intelligence in warfare and strategy. And the description of chariots, cavalry, flags, banners, horses, elephants, weapons, Bow and designer arrows.
  7. And typical styles used for introducing speakers.. Typical line opening styles.

In the following sections, I hope to share the patterns for the above mentioned.

At a Glance

Chapters 68
Verse Count 2877
rAma* 206, hanum* 150, hanUm* 170, rAvana 180

Topics Covered

1. Many names of the Characters
-Basic names, extended names
-Names of Hanuman, Sugriva, Rama, Ravana and others
2.Common Nouns
Nature, Flora & Fauna, Colours and Gem stones
-City of Lanka, Food & Ornaments
-Warfare vocabulary
3.Verbs of Sundarakandam
-travel & search related, token exchange, warfare
-resounding verbs, emotional nouns
-Dailog exchange related verbs
4. Colloquial Words & Connectors
5. Prominent Speakers (chapterwise)
6. Adjectives
7. Character Descriptions
8. Metaphors
-Beauty of Lanka
-Sita’s Sorrow and Dejection
-’Anger’ and ‘Ferociousness’ through Elements
-’Anger’ through Animal Metaphors
Humor Angle
9.Sanskrit dialect of Ramayana & Unique words
10.Chanting Tips
11.Other works in Ramayana

1. Many names of the Characters

In almost all the verses, the actor addresses his recepient with a befitting name. Just familiarising with the names gives a sense of context in the verse. Who is the actor? Who is the addressee? Who is he talking about?

Like the many names of Arjuna in Gita, the names are befittingly used to match the mood of the verse. The parantapa Rama to destroy Lanka.. The anagha and pure Sita meditating on Rama. Just imagine a conversation where every line would embark a different name suiting the context.

Basic Names

rAma 214, raghav 127, lakShmaNa 89
maithili 42, vaidEhee 81
hanuman 150, hanUman 170
sugreeva 96, angada 26, jAmbavAn 13
rAvana 242

Extended Names

Let us look into the patterns that make the extended names. ‘Son of’ ‘Best of’ ‘Tiger among’ ‘Lord of’ kind of tagging is provided. pavanAtmaja would be Hanuman and dasharatAtmaja is Rama.

Pattern Count ~ 700*sUnu(5), *suta(20), Atmaja(82) = son
*AtmajA(36), *sutA(16), *nandinee(9), *duhitA(1) = daughter
*yUthapa(25), *pungava(20) = warrior
*rShabha(28) = bull, *kunjara(35) = elephant
*shArdUla(35), *vyAghra(13) = tiger
ari*(16), shatru*(8) = enemy
*gnah(16) = destroyer of
*ottama(109), *shrEShTha(39), *sattama(31), *vara(6) = best
*Endra(44), *Adhipa(32), adhipati(7), Eshvara(35), *mukhya(16) = Lord

Let’s explore the individual names.

a) Hanuman

hanumaan, hanumatA
mArutAtmajaH, anilAtmajaH, vAtAtmajaH, pavanAtmajaH = son of wind
vaanaraH, kapiH, hariH = monkey

hari-yUthapaH, vAnara-rShabhaH, kapi-kunjara, kapi-shaarduulaH, haripungavaH, harishArdUla = tiger/bull among monkeys
har-ishvaraa, vaanarottamaH, harishrEShTha, harisattamaH, kapivaraH, kapimukhyaH, kapisattama, vaanarendra = best among monkeysplavagottama, plavataam-vara, plavangama = great flyer/jumperharir-dheera, hariveera, haripravara = brave monkey
dharmajJNa = knower of dharma
dhuta, ghuda, chaarikaH = messender, spy

b) Sugriva & Angada

vAnarendra, vAnarEshvara, kapimukhya = king of monkeys
paarthivaH = king
vAlisuta, vAlisUnu = Angada, Son of Vali

c) On the way -Mynaka, Surasa, Simhika & Lankini

mainaakaH, girisattama = best among mountains, hiraNyanaabhaH = mountain with a golden core


dashamukhi, dashagriva = with 10 headsrakshasendra, rakshas-adhipah, rakhodhipati, rAkSaseshvara = head of raakshasas, rAkShasapungavanishachara, nishAcharEshvara, nairRutarShabha = lord of rakshasaslankEshvararaakSasa-raaja-suunuH = Indrajit, son of Ravana

d)Rama & Lakshmana

rAghava(127), kAkutsthaH(19) = from the clan of Raghu and Kakutsta
dasharathAtmajaH = son of Dasharatha
paarthivaatmajau = Ram & Lakshman (son of kings)
mAnavEndra, kOsalEndra = King on men

e) Great Warriors

Depending on the context, it could sometimes be Rama, Hanuma or any other Brave warrior

narashArdUla, naravyAghra, puruShavyAghra = Tiger among menmatiman, matisattamaH = O intelligent one!
variSTha = O foremost!
gaNashochi = O tormentor (Hanuman)
arisUdana, arindamaH, arimardanaH, ariniShUdana, arivAhinee = destroyer of enemiespara-veeraghna, shatrughna, arighna = annihilator of strong enemiesparantapaH = annihilator of enemiesshatru-karshanaH, shatru-suudana, shatrughna, para-puranjaya, paraviiraghna = destroyer of foes


maithilee, vaidEhee, jAnakeejanak-AtmajA, janaka-sutA, janakEshvar-AtmajA, janaka-nandinee, janaka-duhitA, vaidEha-sutA = daughter of JanakarAmadhaara, rAmapatnee, rAmamahiSii, rAmapriya = wife of RamasumadhyamA = slender waist
ananditaa, anagha devi = untarnished, subruh good eyebrows
varArOhA= good limbs, vishalaakshi = big eyes
susmita bhamini = smiling lady, manasvini = having a good mind
kara-tala-udara = a thin waist that can be held by the palm
devasuta-upama = beautiful like daughter of Gods

g)Celestial Observers

yaksha, pannaga, kinnara, sura, charanas, siddhas, rishis

h)Indra & other Gods

Mainly used as metaphors

suresha, shakra, purandara = Indra
paulom, sachi = Indra's wife
Brahma -> Pulastya -> Vishrava = Ravana's lineage
amarAvati, indralok = heavenly worlds
sura asura, samara daanava = opposite worlds
deva, asura, manusha, danava = different types

2. The Common Nouns

a)Nature, Flora & Fauna, Colours and Gem stones

From the scenic journey to Lanka to the beauty of Lanka and Ashoka Vana, Sundarakandam is interspersed with beautiful description of Nature, Vegetation, birds and animals, colours and gemstones. A few verses to get the context before moving to the vocabulary. These words come in rapid succession. Just familiarising a bit does help. And we get to hear the ‘Meru Sama’, ‘Karavira’, ‘Malli’ of Tyagaraja’s compositions.

Hanuma saw pine trees, date-palms , wild jasmine trees, mogra trees, Karaviras beautiful Ashoka, Champaka full of flowers and mango trees.”

“He saw ponds filled with the best waters, with stairs embedded with diamonds , pearls and corals as sand.”

“At banks beds of lotuses and lilies, resounded by chakravaka birds, swans and cranes.”

“By the radiance of those trees, I am beaming like mount Meru in sunshine”, said Hanuman.

Hanuma with great arms climbing up that shimshupaa tree mature with young shoots and leaves and discovers Sita.

Trees & Plants

taru, paadapa, druma = tree
lata = creepers
parna = leaves
pushpa, kusuma, sumana = flower
ankura = buds
sugandhina = fragrant
nalini, kamala, utpala, padma = lotus
saraLaan = pine trees
Karnikaras, kovida, karaviira, Priyala, shalmAli, kumkuma
kharjuura = date-palms
muchulindas = lemon trees; kutajaa = wild jasmine trees
ketaka = mogra trees, priyaJNguu = long pepper trees
niipaan = Kadamba like plant
saptachchhadaan = seven leaved banana trees

Colours & Gem Stones

Apart from Ashoka Vana, the colours keep occurring in many places. The scenic and colourful route to Lanka, Sita’s black kohled eyes, Ravana’s angry red eyes.

neela = blue
rakta, tAmra, lOhita = red
mAnjiShTha, pingala = yellow
patra-varNa = leaf green
vaidurya varna = emerald hue
pAndu, arunA = white
sita asita = white and black
rajata = silver
hema, kumba, kAnchana, chaamikaara, jaambuunadamayaiH = golden
prabha, vichitram = shining, splendid
vajra = diamond, sphatika = crystal, muktaa = pearl,
maNi = gem, hema = gold, danta-antarita = ivory


On the journey back from Lanka, Valmiki Rishi through the words of the elated Hanuman describes the exquisite beauty of the scenes.

“Mountains seem to be reciting scriptures through its sounds of cascades. Clouds clinging the chain of mountains seeming like its feet. Minerals shining on the touch of Sun rays like the glistening eyes.”

“In the ocean of the sky is the lotus of the moon blooming.. the stork of the Sun raising.. the alligator like eyes of the mars.. the constellation of the fish and the swan couple.”

arka, aditya, sUrya, bhaskara, prabhA = sun
vyoma, gaganam, aakasham = sky
megha, toyada, abhra, jaladharam, valaahakaH, ambuda, sannibha = cloud
samudra, arnava, lavaNaambhasi, lavanatoya, udadhiH = ocean
mahi, medhani = earth
parvata, achala, shailah = mountain
koota, shikara, shringa = peak

vana = forest
vaapi = well
prasrava, papaata = water fall
shila = rock
kandaram = caves

Birds & Animals

Apart from the animals of Ashoka vana, the references occur in metaphors like “garuda and snake”. The “bear and monkey” troop of Sugriva are friends to Rama.

mruga = animals
vihaga, dwija, khaga, suparna = birds
uruga, vyaala, pannaga, ahi = snake
vainatena = eagle
baka, kadamba, chakravaaka,karanda, hamsa, krakara, chakora, kokilahari, plavataam, vAnara, kaanana oksakaH = monkeys
ruska = bears

b)City of Lanka, Food & Ornaments

After looking into the Nature vocabulary, let us explore the other static bits of Lanka.

City of Lanka

nagarii = city; bhavana, aTTa = buildings, prAkAra = boundary wall
toraNaa, gOpuram = archways
dwara = entrance, jaala = windows, = crossways

vimaanam = aerial car

Food & Ornaments

lEhyAn bhakShyAn mAMsAni = lickables, eatables, meat
hAra nUpura kEyUra angada = chains, anklets, armlets, bracelets
bhushita Abharana = ornaments
bhrAjamaanam = shining

Family Members

duhita = daughter, sunoh = son
dhara, bharya = wife
bhartha = husband or lord
snusha = daughter-in-law

Parts of the Body

Hanuman’s tail for sure .. horripilation and goosebumps in the hair.. the warriors and their red eyes.. mighty power of their shoulders and thighs..

puchch, laNgUlaam = tail
shiroruhaam = hair
lochana, akshi, ikshana = eyes
uru = thighs, kaTi = waist, bahu = shoulders

c) Warfare Vocabulary

After Nature and Lanka, let’s explore the battle scenes.

The royal appearance, the royal chariots, flags and banners..

Royal Ornaments
nishka angada kundala = chain, armlets, earrings
pataaka = banner
dwaja = flag
ratha, syandanah = chariot
ashwa, haya, turanga, vajiH = horses
gaja, naagaaH, maatanga, kunjara = elephant
vaajiyuktaiH = yoked with horses
samaayuktam vyaaLaiH = and yoked with tigers


shara, baana = arrow
dhanush, chaapam, kaarmukah, chApAni = bow
shalya, ounji, paatra = arrow tips, shaft, feathers
jya = bow string
khadga = sword
aayasam parigham(10) = an iron bar
shuula = spear, mudgara = mallet, vajra = thunderbolt
hemajaala parikSiptaiH = overlaid with aprotective armour of gold
samaaruroha ratham = ascended chariot
asamga vegam = with unchecked swiftness

Deft Usage of Bow

shreSThahaH dhanvinaam = best among the wielders of bow
ratha-nirghoSam = the rattling sound of his chariot
jyaa-svanamcha = and a twang of bow-string
abhipretya = aiming towardsvisphaarayaamaasa dhanuH = stretched his bow;
taTidu-urjitaniH-svanam = which made a glaring sound like that accompanying a stroke of lightning.
mumocha sharaan = released arrows;
aayata tikSNa shalyaan = with long and sharp points;
supatriNaH = having beautiful feathers;
kaaNchana chitrapuNJNaan = provided with picturesque golden shafts; susannataan = with good inclination;
vajranipaata vegan = and swift as lightning

Strategy & Groups

mahatiim chaamuum = a great army, vyudam = army
sachi = minister
aahave, samyati = to battle
samaagamaH = get together for battle
raNa kovidam, vishaarada = skilled in warfare
mano javah = very fast
sa vaaji ratha kumjaraam = along with horses, chariots and elephants

3. Verbs of Sundarkand

Verbs are the action words. A few high frequency patterns observed

'dadarsha' 108, '*AmAsa ' 80, '*vA' 502, '*Ami'

a)Travel and search operation

Hanuman had to fly and cross the ocean to reach Lanka. He carefully observed and combed through the city for his search mission. At times, he had thoughts and conflicts in his mind that he had to resolve.

plavanaM(63), langhanaM(15)= cross
pupluve(13) = jumped over
dadarsha(109) = watched
chintayAmAsa(29) = thought
chakAra(29) = do
jagAma(35) = went

b)Token exchange with Sita

abhigyaanam = token
AswAshan = console
vaayasah = crow, tundam = peck, posthaste = earth
Dustya goodluck

c)Battle with Ravana’s troops

Ravana ordered his troops. The army approached. Hanuman expanded his size. There was destruction.

samAdishat = ordered
AsasAda = approached
vikshepana, puryamaan = expand
sUdayAmi (like arisUdana) = destroy

d)Resounding Verbs

Valmiki’s poetry standout for these sound effects of words. For instance, the sound is repeated in these words.

The first set of doubling verbs is seen in Hanuman’s flight to Lanka and his search for Sita.

dadarsha = watch
babhashit = to shine
shushubhire = to shine
chachala = shook
babhuva = became
nananda = delighted
halahala shabdam = sounds

These sounds describe the vivid battle scenes between Hanuman and Ravana’s troops.

raraasa = uproared
tataapa = shine
nanaada = reverberate
vavau = blow
dadaah = burn
vivrudda = increased
mumocha = release
chachara = moved
papaat = fall
babandhu = tie

e)Popular verb patterns..

'*AmAsa' 80, '*vA ' 502, '*Ami' 150chintayAmAsa(29) = thought
prEShayAmAsa (6) = send
AsphOTayAmAsa(3) = clapped his hands
bhrAmayAmAsa (3) = whirled around
nAshayAmAsa (2) = destroy
darshayAmAsa(2) = watch
tADayAmAsa (2) = hit
pUrayAmAsa = expanded
ardayitvA(3) = tormenting
vyathayitvA = causing anguish
chittvA = breaking
bhanktvA = demolishing
bhittvA = piercing through
varjayitvA = leaving/exiting

f)Other Verbs

nishamya(15) = hear
vishraava = to hear
svana(38) = sound
abhivaadya = offering salutations
lAlasa = looking forward
aadaaya = taking
shodum = to bear
eeshathi = will come
Aasamsham asamshayam = no doubt

udiiratah = moved up
vidhaarayan = assessing
prachodayaamaasa = attacked

vikshepa = expand
upekSitaH = to neglect or think inferior

g)Emotional Nouns that are popular in Current Langauges

paurasham(anger), darunam(ruthless), anartham(horrible)
akasmaatham(suddenly), prayojanam(use), samaadhanam(answer)

h)Change of Speakers

Following verbs were used.

EvamuktvA tu hanumAn
EvamuktaH surasayA
surasA dEvee
idaM vachanaM abraveet
vAkyaM udeerayam (spoke)
, prachoditaH, choditah,
jalpitam (spoke), aaha = saying, Akyatha = tell, gaditam = told
Pralaap, Vilaap, Aalaap for force, cry

4. Colloquial Words & Connectors

= is n't it?
dhik = shame like in ‘dhikkaar hein tum per..’
nuunam = definitely, bhuya = again
muhurtam muhur = even a moment, again again
cha(1000), yUyam = you, ayam = he

Popular Line beginnings

Like in Aditya Hridayam, Sundarkandam has a lot of beginnings from tato and tatah meaning “after that”

tataH(100), tato(57), sa(300+), tasya(41), na hi (29)

5. Prominent Speakers Chapterwise

1. Mt Mahendra, Mt Mainaka, Surasa, Simhika, Lankini15-30: Sita, Ravana and Rakshasas
24. Ogres EkajaTA praghasA et al.
31-40: Hanuman & Sita47. Aksha - Son of Ravana
48. Indrajit - Son of Ravana
49. 4 ministers - Durdhara, Prahasta, Mahaparshva and Nikumbha
54. Wise words of Vibhishana
59. Jambavan, Angada, Neela, Panasa, Mainda and Dvivida
63. Dadhimukha, the caretaker of Madhuvan

6. Adjectives

A few words to describe the splendid looks, happiness, rage and other emotions.

bhiiru bhiiruH = who is very shy
anaghA = faultless
satii sushroNii = virtuous wife
ekavEni = tied plait (symbolism of dejection seperation)
dheemAn = the thoughtful
dhiimataa = intelligent
shreemAn = respected
vikramaH, bheemavikramaH, parAkramaH = valiant
shoka karshitaH = emaciated with grief
mahaabaahuH = the long-armed
pravaraH, prakhyAta = the most excellent
mano javah = very fast
mogham = a wasteRAAKSHASAS
ghoraaNaam = cruel

7. Character Descriptions


हनूमति हि सिद्धिः च मतिः च मति सत्तम || ५-६४-२९
व्यवसायः च वीर्यम् च सूर्ये तेज इव ध्रुवम् |

siddhiH = capacity to accomplish any object
matiH = intelligence
vyavasaayaH = industrious
viiryam = vigour
dhruvam = unchangeable
tejaH iva suurye = like splendour of Sun


puurNa candra aananaam = with a face like full moon
subhruum = with beautiful eyebrows
niila keshiim = with black
bimba oSThiim = with lips like bimba fruit
sumadhyaam = with a good waist
supratiSThaam = very firm
padma palaasha akSiim = with eyes like lotus petals
kSiti kSamaa = with earth like patience
manmathasya ratim yathaa = like Rati the consort of god of love
taapasiim iva = like an ascetic woman

8. Metaphors

True to the name, the ‘Saundarya raasa’ of Sunderkandam has been projected through metaphors, dailogues and sound effects in words. However distant in space and time it be.. the shower of metaphors in Sundarakandam recreate some of the emotions. .. Sita felt violated like the water hitting the banks.. Like the banana leaves torn by the wind etc.. And there are 600 plus metaphors that can be easily parsed with the marker words indicating its presence.

Additionally, these markers help navigation through the verses in Sanskrit as these can be parsed off as technically they do not provide information about the event.

Metaphors 'iva' 'upama' 'tulya' 'samAn' 'sama' 'yathA' 'sankAsh*'
369, 70, 15, 23, 166, 40; 20% of verse count

Beauty of Lanka, Ravana and his palace

devapurrim iva = like the city of Gods
indrasya amaraavatiim yathaa = like Indra's city of Amaravati
aakaashagam puram yathaa = like a city located in the sky
kailaasa shikhara aalikhantiim iva = touching the sky like Kailasa
babhaase dyaur iva = like the sky
ambudaiH gRiha meghaiH = with cloud like houses

Beauty through ‘Elements’ -Scenic Journey & Hanuman

(Ravana's good looks)(Hanuman covered with flowers and leaves in Ashoka Vana)
mEru mandara sankAshA = like the towering Meru and Mandaara mountain
(beauty of Ocean)
aakaashaM taaraachitam iva = like the sky adorned by the stars

Sita’s Sorrow and Dejection

When Hanuman spots Sita, he describes her condition through this train of metaphors. Just give the English part a read.

vibhaavasoH shikhaam iva = like a tongue of fire
samdighdaam smRitiim iva = like an intellect filled with doubts
nipatitaam Riddhim iva = like a cast away treasure
vihataam shraddhaam iva = like shattered faith
pratihataam aashaam iva = like a frustrated hope
nipatitaa kiirtim iva = like fallen down fame
kaala meghaiH iva AvrutAm = like covered by the black clouds (her beauty was covered by dust)
vidyaam iva prashithilaam = like knowledge in ruin
hima hata nalinii iva = like a lotus plant hit by snow
cakravaakii iva saha cara rahitaa = like a chakravaka bird without companion
naavam iva nyastaam= like a ship sinking down

Anxiety of Rama

pipaasitaH prapaam iva = like a thirsty one (waiting for Sita)

‘Anger’ and ‘Ferociousness’ through Clouds, Ocean, Sun..

sa mahAn iva tOyadaH = like a vast cloud
kalpaanta ghana sannibhaa = (Lankini Ogress resembling a ) cloud at the time of pralayavidyut toyadaH iva = like a cloud charged with lightningabrebyah saudaminya iva = like lightening of a cloudSUN
aadityaH iva amshumaalii = like Sun having a garland of rays
kAla agni iva = fire of time ready to terminate the world

‘Anger’ through Animal Metaphors

gavaam pati iva = like an angry bullpravRuddha iva kEsaree = angry like a lionsamudra iva parvasu = like an ocean swelling on full moonmattA iva mahAgajAH = like an elephant in rutpanchAsyA iva pannagau = like five-headed serpents


I was struggling to understand the intent in 2 cases. Elaborate description of the Ogres surrounding Sita in Ashoka Vatika. Later, I read this beautiful post on Humor Elements in Ramayana..


“Some had only one eye. Others a single ear. Some had wide ears. Some had no ears at all. Some had sharp ears. Some had a nose which faced upwards. One had a gargantuan head! One had a long neck! One was bald! One had hairs all over! One had a long forehead and ears. Some had a pot belly, hanging lips, hanging face, hanging legs! One was short, someone else was tall, yet another was hunch backed! One was ugly and stout! One was terrifying, yet another was crooked faced! One had blazing red eyes, while someone else had a disfigured face!”

“They were all dark, quick tempered and quarrelsome! Some had faces resembling pigs, deers, tigers, buffaloes, goats and foxes’ faces! Some had legs which resembled elephants, horses and camels’ legs! Some had their heads which were buried in their bodies! Some had only one hand, others had just one leg! Some had their ears resembling donkeys, horses, bulls, elephants, and lions’ ears! Women devoid of noses, noses which were long, short, crooked, curved, resembling elephants’ trunk, and residing on their forehead too were there! Some had hoofs like bulls! Some had their hair hanging till their feet. Some were big breasted! Some had huge eyes, long tongues, some had faces like cows, pigs! Some were redheaded! They were drinking liquor, eating meat and blood was spilled all over their bodies!

(Sundarakāṇḍa 17.5–16)

And the Antics of the Monkeys.

The poet has indeed observed carefully how overjoyed monkeys behave. चुचुम्ब पुच्छम् makes it amply clear.

The Monkeys are overjoyed seeing Hanuman return.

“Some jumped in joy! Some screeched! Some roared! Some made laughing noises! Some roared in response! Some smashed their long tails on earth! Some monkeys descended from the mountains and repeatedly touched him in joy!”

Meanwhile the gatekeeper of Madhuvana, Dadhimukha came in and tried his best to ward them off. They beat him up. Ridiculed him! Even showed him their rectum! ‘देवमार्गं च दर्शिताः’, maharṣi Vālmīki has called it devamārga! What an inside joke!

Then the vānaras ran to Sugrīva. They competed in enthusiastically declaring that they had seen devī Sītā. Sugrīva, Lakṣmaṇa and Śrīrāma were waiting. All of them are longing to narrate the whereabouts of devī Sītā. Everyone was shouting, “I’ve seen devī Sītā! She is in Laṅkā!” The only person who actually saw her, i.e. Hanūmān stood somewhere in oblivion!

एतदाख्यान्ति ते सर्वे हरयो रामसन्निधौ ॥

Śrīrāma asked them to narrate everything in detail. How would the vānaras know? They finally turned to Hanūmān and said, ‘O Hanūmān! Please give all the details!’ (Sundarakāṇḍa 65.4–6)

9.Sanskrit dialect of Ramayana

Yet to explore this in detail. Around 2000 years back, Panini had codified the root words and verb noun forms. This standardisation seemed to have brought reduction. If Ramayana is dated to 10K years from today, we get to see some of the patterns that are not part of Panini grammar.

I wonder if the ‘*amAsa’ usage of verbs like chintayAmAsa,
is one such pattern. And the section of doubling sounds rarAsa, tatApa, nanAda.

10.Dating of Unique words

The Sanskrit equivalent of

“shortsightedness” -adeergadarshi
“freeing from the clutches of sorrow” -shoka vipaakasya vimokSaNam
“eloquent” -vaakyam vishaaradaH

Hanuman wonders if Sita will visit the lake for her evening Sandhya Vandana. Rama is called as Brahmachari.

Description of 4 tusked elephants. Elephants are referred by terms other than hasthin gaja, naagaaH, maatanga, kunjara. Came across Rupa Bhati’s article on Elephants in Rig Vedic times.

11. Chanting Tips

The meanings are available ‘word by word’’ and “English prose” styles in
http://valmikiramayan.net/utf8/sundara/sundara_contents.htm. It is story like and very simple one line kind of meaning per verse.

This chanting link has sandhi markings in the PDF to aid chanting and available in multiple languages. The sarga 1 verses start a few pages later on and I directly started from there. Each time, the following verse for dhyaanam and conclusion was recommended by our teacher.

ShuklaAmbara Dharam Vishnum Shashi Varnam Chatur Bhujam |
Prasanna Vadanam Dhyaayet Sarva Vighnopashaantaye ||
VaagIsAdya sumanasa ssarvArthAnA mupakramE |
YamnatvA krutakrutyasyu stam namaami GajAnanam ||
Shri Sita Lakshmana Bharata Shatrughna Hanuman Sametha
Sri Ramachandra Swamine Namah ||

There are 2 kind of verses — Anustup following 8*4 and Tristup 11*4. I have used the Vishnu Sahasranamam ‘regular tune’ and ‘dhyaanam tune’ for the these 2 kinds.

It is customary to chant the beautiful Shri Rama Pattabhishekam after completing the Sundarakandamchant. On Youtube.

In my case, Since I had read the meaning in English and a lookup of Sanskrit words, I did it at a rate of 1 chapter per day. My friend did like 4 chapters per day without going over the meanings.

Sanskrit Channel lists out different ways it can be done. This can be used as a reference in planning the period needed for chanting completion.

1 Day | 10 hrs | Allchapters2 Days | 5 hrs | [1-35] [36-68]5 Days  | 2 hrs | [1-15][16-37][38][39-54][55-68]7 Days | 1.5 hrs | [1-5][6-15][17-27][28-35][36-42][43-54]55-68]68 Days - One sarga per day

12. Other works in Valmiki Ramayan

  1. Sita Kalyanam | Chant| Balakandam Sarga 73| Chaganti Pravachanam
  2. Aditya Hridayam | Chant | Yuddakandam 105 | PDF
  3. Sundarakandam
  4. Rama Pattabhishekam | Chant | Yuddakandam 128 | Chaganti Pravachanam



chanting link



Chapter 47 Hanuman defeats Aksha, son of Ravana.

An interesting battle between Aksha and Hanuman. Hanuman has awe for his opponent. At the same time he reckons that he should use force and defeat his strong opponent.

Royal Ornaments

nishka angada kundala = chain, armlets, earrings

Warfare related Tools & Weapons

pataaka = banner
dwaja = flag
ratha, syandanah = chariot
ashwa, haya, turanga, vajiH = horses
gaja, maatanga = elephant
vyudam = army
aahave, samyati = to battle
samaagamaH = get together for battle
raNa kovidam = skilled in warfare
mano javah = very fast
shara = arrow
kaarmukah = bow
khadga = sword

Interesting Verbs

nishamya =   hearing
udiiratah = moved up
vidhaarayan = assessing
prachodayaamaasa = attacked
apuuryata = grew in size
vikshepa = expand
mano javah = very fast
upekSitaH = to neglect or think inferior

Double sounds showing intensity & Rasa Dwani

raraasa = uproared
tataapa = shine
nanaada = reverberate
vavau = blow
dadaah = burn
vivrudda = increased
mumocha = release
chachara = moved
papaat = fall

Chapter 48 -Indrajit launches Brahmastra and captures Hanuman

Ravana’s motivational talk to Indrajit. He sees his self and valour in him. Reminds him to be composed and reckon the situation.

Callouts & Actors

matiman = O intelligent one!
arniSUdana = O annihilator of enemies!
variSTha = O foremost!
arimdama = O destroyer of enemies!
gaNashochi = Hanuman - tormenting group of rakshasasrakSodhipatiH = Ravana the king of the demons
raNapaNDitaH = Indrajit foremost in warfare
raakSasa-raaja-suunuH = Indrajit, son of Ravana
raakSasendre = Ravana
na gatashramaH = was not without a fatigue
matisattamaH = with a great intellect


pitaa mahaa-araadhana-samchita-astraH = having missiles acquired by propitiating Brahma the creatorश्चचार मार्गे पितुरप्रमेयः  Hanuma dodged and wheeled about in the path of wind-god, his fathersamaadhi-samyoga samaahit-aatmaa = who was well known for hitting his targetततः पैतामहम् वीरः सोऽस्त्रमस्त्रविदाम् वरः Launched Brahma astrapitaamaha-anugraham = Indirectly a favour by Brahmaबबन्धुः शण-वल्कैश्च द्रुमचीरैश्च = tied with hemp rope and bark of treesparichaara vRiddaan = and his elderly attendants; rakSodhipa paadamuule = at the feet of Ravana.


mahat balam = great strength
prabhaavam, paraakram, saaram = power
yuddhoddhataH = who was violent in battle
prati-puujitaH = acclaimed
vegavaan = speedily
aashu = swiftly
moghayan = making useless

Weapons & Tools

moghayan = making useless
syandana, ratah = chariot
sharah, baanam = arrows
shalya, ounji, paatra = arrow tips, shaft, feathers
dhanu, chaapam = bow
jya = bow string
astra shastra = missiles, weapons
samara = battle
atma-balam, param = your strength, opponent's strength
ashwa naaga ratha = horses, elephants, chariotsagni-kalpa, vajra
astraviiryam = the strength of arrows
divyam dhanuSaH = your wonderful bow
vaishaaradyam = the skill
samaaruroha ratham = ascended chariot
asamga vegam = with unchecked swiftness
samaayuktam vyaaLaiH = and yoked with tigers

Weapon Usage

shreSThahaH dhanvinaam = best among the wielders of bow;
ratha-nirghoSam = the rattling sound of his chariot;
jyaa-svanamcha = and a twang of bow-string;
shita shalyaan saayakaan = with pointed arrows;
abhipretya = aiming towards
visphaarayaamaasa dhanuH = stretched his bow;
taTidu-urjitaniH-svanam = which made a glaring sound like that accompanying a stroke of lightning.
mumocha sharaan = released arrows;
aayata tikSNa shalyaan = with long and sharp points;
supatriNaH = having beautiful feathers;
kaaNchana chitrapuNJNaan = provided with picturesque golden shafts; susannataan = with good inclination;
vajranipaata vegan = and swift as lightning


sa-roSaH = full of anger
samaadidesha = instructed
naa shekuH = were not able to
chakaara = performed
pratyapadyata = entered
aadaaya = taking
jagaama = proceeded
vyavardhata cha = and grew up his body
utpapaata = sprang up


samudraH iva = like an ocean; parvasu = on full moon days
mattam maataNgamiva = who was like an elephant in rut.



Sujatha R

I write.. I weave.. I walk.. कवयामि.. वयामि.. यामि.. Musings on Music, Linguistics & Patterns